Situational Crime Prevention (2023)

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  • Clarke, R. V. G., & Eck, J. (2005). Crime analysis for problem solvers in 60 small steps. Washington, DC: Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, United States Department of Justice.

    (Video) Crime Prevention - Situational Crime Prevention | A-Level Sociology

  • Clarke, R. V. G., & Goldstein, H. (2002). Reducing theft at construction sites: Lessons from a problem-oriented project. Crime Prevention Studies, 13, 89–130.

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  • Clarke, R.V., & G. R. Newman. 2005. Guest eds. 2009. Crime Prevention Studies; Volume 25: Designing Out Crime from Products and Systems. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.

  • Clarke, R. V. G., & Newman, G. R. (2006). Outsmarting the terrorists. Westport, CT: ABC-CLIO Praeger Security International.

  • Clarke, R. V. G., & Newman, G. R. (2005a). Modifying criminogenic products: What role for government? In R. V. G. Clarke & G. R. Newman (Eds.), Designing out crime from products and systems. Crime Prevention Studies (Vol. 18, pp. 7–84). Portland, OR: Willan Publishing.

  • Clarke, R. V. G., & Newman, G. R. (Eds.). (2005b). Designing out crime from products and systems. Crime Prevention Studies, Vol. 18. Portland, OR: Willan Publishing.

  • Clarke, R. V. G., & Weisburd, D. (1994). Diffusion of crime control benefits: Observations on the reverse of displacement. Crime Prevention Studies, 2, 165–182.

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  • Cornish, D. B., & Clarke, R. V. G. (Eds.) (1986). The reasoning criminal. New York: Springer-Verlag.

  • Cornish, D., & Clarke, R. V. (2002). Analyzing organized crimes. In A. R. Piquero & S. G. Tibbetts (Eds.), Rational choice and criminal behavior: Recent research and future challenges (pp. 41–63). New York: Routledge.

  • Cornish, D. B., & Clarke, R. V. G. (2003). Opportunities, precipitators, and criminal decisions: A reply to Wortley’s critique of situational crime prevention. In M. J. Smith & D. B. Cornish (Guest Eds.), Theory for practice in situational crime.

  • Cornish, D. B., & Clarke, R. V. G. (2003). Opportunities, precipitators, and criminal decisions: A reply to Wortley’s critique of situational crime prevention. Crime Prevention Studies, 16, 41–96.

  • Cornish, D. B., & Clarke, R. V. G. (2008). The rational choice perspective. In R. Wortley & L. Mazerolle (Eds.), Environmental criminology and crime analysis (pp. 21–47). Portland, OR: Willan Publishing.

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  • Eck, J. E. (2002a). Preventing crime at places. In L. Sherman, D. Farrington, B. Welsh, & D. Mackenzie (Eds.), Evidence-based crime prevention. New York: Routledge.

  • Eck, J. E. (2002b). Learning from experience in problem-oriented policing and situational prevention: The positive functions of weak evaluations and the negative functions of strong ones. Crime Prevention Studies, 14. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.

    (Video) What is Situational Crime Prevention

  • Eck, J. E., & Madensen, T. (2012). Situational crime prevention makes problem-oriented policing work: The importance of interdependent theories for effective policing. In N. Tilley & G. Farrell (Eds.), The reasoning criminologist: Essays in honour of Ronald V. Clarke (Crime Science Series) (pp. 81–91). New York: Routledge.

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  • Ekblom, P. (2012a). Happy returns: Ideas brought back from situational crime prevention’s exploration of design against crime. In N. Tilley & G. Farrell (Eds.), The reasoning criminologist: Essays in honour of Ronald V. Clarke (pp. 52–64). New York: Routledge.

  • Ekblom, P. (Ed.). (2012b). Design against crime: Crime proofing everyday products. Crime Prevention Studies, Vol. 27. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers

  • Felson, M. (2008). Routine activity approach. In R. Wortley & L. Mazerolle (Eds.), Environmental criminology and crime analysis (pp. 70–77). Portland, OR: Willan Publishing.

  • Felson, M. (2014). Linking criminal choices, routine activities, informal control, and criminal outcomes. In D. B. Cornish, & R. V. G. Clarke (Eds.), The reasoning criminal (2d ed., pp. 119–128). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

  • Felson, M., & Clarke, R. V. (1997). The ethics of situational crime prevention. In G. R. Newman, R. V. Clarke, & S. G. Shoham (Eds.), Rational choice and situational crime prevention. Aldershot, U.K.: Ashgate.

  • Freilich, J. D. (2015). Beccaria and situational crime prevention. Criminal Justice Review, 40(2), 131–150.

  • Freilich, J. D., & Chermak, S. M. (2009). Preventing deadly encounters between law enforcement and American far-rightists. Crime Prevention Studies, 25, 141–172.

  • Freilich, J. D., & Natarajan, M. (2009). Ronald Clarke. In K. Haywood, S. Maruna, & J. Mooney (Eds.), Fifty key thinkers in criminology (pp. 238–242). New York: Routledge.

  • Freilich, J. D., & Newman, G. R. (Eds.). (2009). Reducing terrorism through situational crime prevention. Crime prevention studies, Vol. 25. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.

  • Freilich, J. D., & Newman, G. R. (2014). Providing opportunities: A sixth column for the techniques of situational crime prevention. In S. Caneppele & F. Calderoni (Eds.), Organized crime, corruption, and crime prevention: Essays in honor of Ernesto Savona (pp. 33–42). New York: Springer.

  • Freilich, J. D., & Newman, G. R. (2016). Transforming piecemeal social engineering into “grand” crime prevention policy: Toward a new criminology of social control. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 105(1), 209–238.

  • Garland, D. (2000). Ideas, institutions and SCP. In A. von Hirsch et al. (Eds.), Ethical and social perspectives on situational crime prevention. Oxford: Hart Publishing.

  • Gottfredson, M. R., & Hirschi, T. (1990). A general theory of crime. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

  • Guerette, R. T. (2009). Analyzing crime displacement and diffusion. Tool Guide No. 10 (2009). Center for Problem Oriented Policing. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice. Available at http://www.popcenter.org.

  • Guerette, R. T., & Bowers, K. J. (2009). Assessing the extent of crime displacement and diffusion of benefits: A review of situational crime prevention evaluations. Criminology, 47(4), 1331–1368.

  • Guerette, R., & Clarke, R. V. (2003). Product life cycles and crime: Automated teller machines and robbery. Security Journal, 16(1), 7–18.

  • Hardie, J. & Hobbs, B. (2005). Partners against crime- the role of the corporate sector in tacking crime. Crime Prevention Studies, 18, 85–140.

    (Video) Situational Crime Prevention

  • Haywood, K. (2007). Situational crime prevention and its discontents: Rational choice theory versus the “culture of now.” Social Policy & Administration, 41(3), 232–250.

  • Hesseling, R. B. P. (1994). Displacement: A review of the empirical literature. Crime Prevention Studies, 3, 197–230.

  • Hsu, H. Y., & Apel, R. (2015). A situational model of displacement and diffusion following the introduction of airport metal detectors. Terrorism and Political Violence, 27(1), 29–52.

  • Hsu, H. Y., & Newman, G. R. (2011). Rational choice and terrorist target selection. In U. Kumar & M. K. Mandal (Eds.), Countering terrorism: Psycho-social strategies (pp. 227–249). New York: SAGE.

  • Jeffrey, C., & Zahm, D. (1993). Crime prevention through environmental design, opportunity theory and rational choice models. In R. V. G. Clarke & M. Felson (Eds.), Routine activities and rational choice. Advances in criminological theory (Vol. 5, pp. 323–350). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Press.

  • Killias, M. (2006). The opening and closing of breaches: A theory of crime waves, law creation and crime prevention. European Journal of Criminology, 3(1), 11–31.

  • Knepper, P. (2007). Situational logic in social science inquiry: From economics to criminology. Review of Austrian Economics, 20(1), 25–41.

  • Kornhauser, R. R. (1978). Social sources of delinquency. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  • Marongiu, P., & Newman, G. R. (1997). Situational crime prevention and the utilitarian tradition. In G. Newman, R. V. Clarke, & S. G. Shoham (Eds.), Rational choice and situational crime prevention (pp. 115–135). Aldershot, U.K.: Ashgate.

  • Mayhew, P., Clarke, R. V., Hough, M., & Sturman, A. (1976). Crime as opportunity. Home Office Research Study No. 34. London: HMSO.

  • Mazerolle, L. G., & Roehl, J. (Eds.). (1998). Crime prevention studies, Vol. 9. Special Issue on Civil Remedies and Crime Prevention. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.

  • Nagin, D. S., & Weisburd, D. (2013). Evidence and public policy. Criminology and Public Policy, 12, 651–679.

  • Natarajan, M., & Hough, M. (2000). Illegal drug markets: From research to policy. In R. V. Clarke (Ed.), Crime prevention studies. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.

  • Newman, G. R. (1985). The punishment response. Albany, NY: Harrow & Heston.

  • Newman, G. R. (1997). Introduction: Toward a theory of situational crime prevention. In G. Newman, R. V. Clarke, & S. G. Shoham (Eds.), Rational choice and situational crime prevention (pp. 1–23). Aldershot, U.K.: Ashgate.

  • Newman, G. R. (2012). Designing markets for crime reduction. Crime Prevention Studies, 27, 87–106.

  • Newman, G. R., & Clarke, R. V. G. (2003). Superhighway robbery: Preventing e-commerce crime. Portland, OR: Willan Publishing.

  • Newman, G. R., & Freilich, J. D. (2012). Extending the reach of situational crime prevention. In N. Tilley & G. Farrell (Eds.), The reasoning criminologist: Essays in honor of Ronald V. Clarke (pp. 212–225). New York: Routledge

  • Newman, G. R., & Marongiu, P. (1990). Penological reform and the myth of Beccaria. Criminology, 28(2), 325–346.

  • Newman, G. R., & Marongiu, P. (1997). Situational crime prevention and the utilitarian theories of Jeremy Bentham. In G. Newman, R. V. Clarke, & S. G. Shoham (Eds.), Rational choice and situational crime prevention (pp. 137–162). Aldershot, U.K.: Ashgate.

  • Opp, K. D. (1997). Limited rationality and crime. In G. Newman, R. V. Clarke, & S. G. Shoham (Eds.), Rational choice and situational crime prevention. Aldershot, U.K.: Ashgate.

    (Video) Situational Crime Prevention: Strategies and Techniques

  • Pease, K. (2001). Cracking crime through design. London: Design Council.

  • Perry, S., Apel, R., Newman, G. R., & Clarke, R. V. G. (2016). The situational prevention of terrorism: An evaluation of the Israeli West Bank barrier.

  • Poyner, B., & Webb, B. (1991). Situational crime prevention in two parking facilities. Security Journal, 2, 96–101.

  • Reppetto, T. A. (1976). Crime prevention and the displacement phenomenon. Crime and Delinquency, 22(2), 166–177.

  • Scott, M., & Goldstein, H. (2012). Ron Clarke’s contribution to improving policing: A diffusion of benefits. In N. Tilley & G. Farrell (Eds.), The reasoning criminologist: Essays in honor of Ronald V. Clarke (pp. 93–107). New York: Routledge.

  • Simon, H. A. (1955). A behavioral model of rational choice. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 69, 99–118.

  • Smith, M. J., Clarke, R. V. G., & Pease, K. (2002). Anticipatory benefits in crime reduction. Crime Prevention Studies, 13, 71–88.

  • Tilley, N. (1997). Realism, situational rationality and crime prevention. In G. Newman, R. V. Clarke, & S. G. Shoham (Eds.), Rational choice and situational crime prevention (pp. 95–114). Aldershot, U.K.: Ashgate.

  • Tilley, N. (2004). Karl Popper: A philosopher for Ronald Clarke’s situational crime prevention. Israel Studies in Criminology, 8, 39–56.

  • Weisburd, D., Wycoff, L. A., Ready, J., Eck, J. E., & Hinkle, J. C. (2006). Does crime just move around the corner? A controlled study of spatial displacement and diffusion of crime control benefits. Criminology, 44(3), 549–592.

  • Weisburd, D., Groff, E. R., & Yang, S. M. (2012). The criminology of place: Street segments and our understanding of the crime problem. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Wilkins, L. (1997). Criminology in crisis and the social demand for crime prevention. In G. R. Newman, R. V. Clarke, & S. Shoham (Eds.), Rational choice and situational crime prevention: Theoretical foundations. Aldershot, U.K.: Ashgate.

  • Wilson, J. Q., & Kelling, G. L. (1982). Broken windows. Atlantic Monthly, 249, 29–38.

  • Wortley, R. K. (1996). Guilt, shame and situational crime prevention. Crime Prevention Studies, 5, 115–132.

  • Wortley, R. K. (1997). Reconsidering the role of opportunity in situational crime prevention. In G. Newman, R. V. Clarke, & S. G. Shoham (Eds.), Rational choice and situational crime prevention (pp. 65–81). Aldershot, U.K.: Ashgate.

  • Wortley, R. K. (2001). A classification of techniques for controlling situational precipitators of crime. Security Journal, 14, 63–82.

  • Wortley, R. K. (2002). Situational prison control: Crime prevention in correctional institutions. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

  • Wortley, R. K. (2008). Situational precipitators of crime. In R. Wortley & L. Mazerolle (Eds.), Environmental criminology and crime analysis (pp. 48–69). Portland, OR: Willan Publishing.

  • Wortley, R. K. (2011). Psychological criminology: An integrative approach. London: Routledge.

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    (Video) Opportunity Theories of Crime | Rational Choice, Routine Activities, Situational Crime Prevention

FAQs

How effective is situational crime prevention? ›

There were a number of studies that showed that situational crime prevention was effective in reducing crime and a number that were inconclusive. Evaluations of access control, place managers ( e.g. bus conductors, receptionists), target removal and physical barriers were generally positive.

What is an example of a situational crime prevention strategy? ›

Some examples of situational prevention in effect include installing surveillance equipment in areas that experience a lot of vandalism. Another example includes installing security screens in banks to prevent robberies.

What are the five goals of situational crime prevention? ›

The five proposed strategies to prevent and/or reduce crime involve: increasing the effort to offend; increasing the risks of detection and apprehension; reducing the rewards for offending; reducing provocations that lead to offending; and removing excuses for offending.

How does situational crime prevention serve to deter crime? ›

Situational crime prevention serves to deter crime by altering an offender's judgement about the risks and rewards of committing the crime. This is typically achieved by influencing an offender's perception of opportunity at or near the time and place where they intend to act.

What is situational crime preventions greatest criticism? ›

Critics of situational crime prevention argue that it may not be possible to reduce all crimes by reducing opportunities in the physical environment of the community or neighborhood. For example, bank robberies are generally not opportunistic crimes. This means that only people who make a living from crimes rob banks.

What is the most effective way to reduce crime? ›

Crime Prevention Tips:

Make Your Home Look Occupied: Leave some lights and a radio on when you're out. Lock Your Doors: Never leave your house open for “just a moment,” always lock your doors when you're out. Use Deadbolt Locks: A deadbolt lock is a good deterrent to burglars.

What is the example situational crime? ›

Examples of situational crime prevention in action

Removal of target: Parking a luxury car in a garage rather than on the street in an area where vehicle break-ins or auto theft are a problem.

What is situational crime prevention essay? ›

It seeks to curtail opportunities for certain groups of crime by increasing the risks and difficulties associated with them and significantly reducing the rewards.

What is situational crime in criminology? ›

Introduction. Situational crime prevention (SCP) seeks to reduce the number of crime events by focusing on limiting the opportunities for crime to occur. The approach typically uses an action-research model and assumes that offenders make decisions that are broadly rational.

What are 4 major strategies for reducing crime? ›

four major prevention strategies: law enforcement, and developmental, community, and situational prevention.

Why is crime prevention important? ›

Prevention results in reduction of crime and costs for countering crime, increased security of citizens and citizens' trust in the capacity of law-enforcement bodies to protect their rights and lawful interests.

What theory does situational crime prevention fall under? ›

Situational crime prevention rests on a sound foundation of criminological theories—routine activity theory, crime pattern theory, and the rational choice perspective—all of which hold that opportunity plays a part in every form of crime or disorder.

What is situational choice theory? ›

The editors note that at the core of rational choice theory and situational crime prevention is the belief that offenders make rudimentary judgements about the costs and benefits of committing crime and that they can be deterred by environmental changes to reduce criminal opportunities.

How do we modify behavior to reduce crime? ›

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) can reduce criminal behavior among both at-risk youth and criminally engaged men, likely by helping them focus more on the future, change their self-perceptions, and/or slow their decision-making.

Do laws actually prevent crime? ›

Effects of strict laws are:

Deter potential offenders- The aim of providing punishment is that the others who can commit the crime within the future understand that they're going to need to face an equivalent consequences then they are doing not dare to commit the crime.

What do you think is your best way of contributing to the crime prevention efforts of law enforcement agencies? ›

Community building activities, provision of welfare services and increasing community support groups all help to enhance the sense of community and can contribute to the prevention of crime. Stopping the opportunities for crime is an effective way of preventing crime.

What is social crime prevention? ›

Social Crime prevention is an approach to crime prevention that addresses the root causes of crime. The focus is mainly on the social elements that lead to crime such as lack of community cohesion, ignorance, breakdown in family societal values and poor environmental conditions.

Who describes how situational crime prevention can design crime out of a particular area? ›

Ron Clarke (1992) describes situational crime prevention as 'a pre-emptive approach that relies not on improving society, but simply on reducing opportunities for crime. ' It's based on Rational Choice theory that criminal weigh up pros and cons.

Is social crime prevention effective? ›

Intro: Situational and social crime prevention strategies have been mostly successful in achieving compliance with criminal law amongst certain categories of crime.

What is the distinction between seasonal and situational crimes? ›

▪️Seasonal and Situational Crimes - Seasonal crimes are those that are committed only at certain period of the year while situational crimes are those that are committed only when given a situation conducive to its commission.

Why is opportunity reduction considered as the main focus of SCP? ›

Focused opportunity reduction can produce wider declines in crime – Prevention measures in one area can lead to a reduction in another nearby, a 'diffusion of benefits'. This is because offenders might overestimate the reach of those measures.

Where did situational crime prevention come from? ›

Researchers in the Home Office Research Unit, the British government's criminological research department, formulated situational prevention nearly 40 years ago (Clarke, 1980). It was originally thought to be applicable only to “opportunistic” property offenses, such as car theft vandalism and burglary.

What do prevention strategies aim to do? ›

In both cases, prevention strategies take aim at how people think, feel, and act by focusing messages and activities on areas of influence such as the individual, family, or community. Successful prevention decreases risk factors and enhances protective factors.

What are the 3 key stages of crime prevention? ›

There are three main levels of prevention: primary, secondary, and tertiary. Primary prevention is aimed at the general population and seeks to address risk factors for delinquency. Similarly, secondary prevention also attempts to address risk factors, but is aimed at a more at-risk population.

What is the difference between crime control and crime prevention? ›

Both forms of crime prevention share a common goal of trying to prevent the occurrence of a future criminal act, but what distinguishes crime prevention from crime control is that prevention typically operates outside of the confines of the formal justice system.

How can we prevent violence in our society? ›

Tips for Youth to Stop Violence
  1. Tell someone. If you are the victim or are witness to violence, tell someone. ...
  2. Take all violence and abuse seriously. ...
  3. Take a stand. ...
  4. Be an individual. ...
  5. Take back the power. ...
  6. Remember, putting others down doesn't raise you up. ...
  7. Wrong. ...
  8. Be a friend.

What is the role of community in crime prevention? ›

Citizens can act as individuals to prevent crime by serving as witnesses, intervening in attempted offenses, taking precautions to prevent the theft of one's property, and establishing and enforcing guidelines for the behavior of one's children.

How can we prevent crime in youth? ›

should offer a range of choices, be structured, safe and age-appropriate. After-school initiatives should build on youth groups' work and support these, rather than replacing them. Provide incentives for youth who have taken the initiative to develop after-school activities for other young people.

What is crime prevention in security education? ›

Crime prevention is defined as “the anticipation, the recognition, and the appraisal of a crime risk and the initiation of action to remove or reduce it.” The first step in crime prevention is to realize that in order to prevent crime or becoming a crime victim we must accept that crime prevention is a shared ...

What are 4 major strategies for reducing crime? ›

four major prevention strategies: law enforcement, and developmental, community, and situational prevention.

Who describes how situational crime prevention can design crime out of a particular area? ›

Ron Clarke (1992) describes situational crime prevention as 'a pre-emptive approach that relies not on improving society, but simply on reducing opportunities for crime. ' It's based on Rational Choice theory that criminal weigh up pros and cons.

What is situational crime prevention essay? ›

It seeks to curtail opportunities for certain groups of crime by increasing the risks and difficulties associated with them and significantly reducing the rewards.

What is situational crime in criminology? ›

Introduction. Situational crime prevention (SCP) seeks to reduce the number of crime events by focusing on limiting the opportunities for crime to occur. The approach typically uses an action-research model and assumes that offenders make decisions that are broadly rational.

What are the 3 key stages of crime prevention? ›

There are three main levels of prevention: primary, secondary, and tertiary. Primary prevention is aimed at the general population and seeks to address risk factors for delinquency. Similarly, secondary prevention also attempts to address risk factors, but is aimed at a more at-risk population.

Why is crime prevention important? ›

Prevention results in reduction of crime and costs for countering crime, increased security of citizens and citizens' trust in the capacity of law-enforcement bodies to protect their rights and lawful interests.

What is crime prevention theory? ›

Preventive Theory: This theory too aims to prevent the crime rather than avenging it. As per this theory, the idea is to keep the offender away from the society. This criminal under this theory is punished with death, life imprisonment etc. This theory has been criticized by some jurists.

Does situational crime prevention require a rational offender? ›

Even those prevention strategies that do involve opportunity reduction do not necessarily involve the exercise of rational choice. In many cases reducing opportunity does not affect the choices that potential offenders make but reduces the choices that are available to them (Sidebottom and Tilley, forthcoming).

In what way is situational crime prevention pre emptive? ›

Situational crime prevention attempts to reduce opportunities to commit crimes and make it more difficult to break the law in everyday situations. It looks at the types of offences people commit, the places where they offend, and aims to prevent them at the point of their intersection. It is a pre-emptive strategy.

What are the theoretical roots of situational crime prevention? ›

Situational crime prevention rests on a sound foundation of criminological theories—routine activity theory, crime pattern theory, and the rational choice perspective—all of which hold that opportunity plays a part in every form of crime or disorder.

Is social crime prevention effective? ›

Intro: Situational and social crime prevention strategies have been mostly successful in achieving compliance with criminal law amongst certain categories of crime.

What is the distinction between seasonal and situational crimes? ›

▪️Seasonal and Situational Crimes - Seasonal crimes are those that are committed only at certain period of the year while situational crimes are those that are committed only when given a situation conducive to its commission.

Why is opportunity reduction considered as the main focus of SCP? ›

Focused opportunity reduction can produce wider declines in crime – Prevention measures in one area can lead to a reduction in another nearby, a 'diffusion of benefits'. This is because offenders might overestimate the reach of those measures.

How many techniques of situational crime prevention are there? ›

Building on these understandings, Professor Ron Clarke from Rutgers University has proposed a classification of 25 situational prevention techniques arranged into five principal categories of action within an over-arching rational choice theory.

What is situational choice theory? ›

The editors note that at the core of rational choice theory and situational crime prevention is the belief that offenders make rudimentary judgements about the costs and benefits of committing crime and that they can be deterred by environmental changes to reduce criminal opportunities.

Videos

1. Situational Action Theory
(Det Kriminalpræventive Råd)
2. Professor Kate Bowers on Situational Crime Prevention, 27 February 2013, Sydney
(NSW BOCSAR)
3. 50 Years of Crime Prevention Theory in 5 Minutes FINAL
(CPTED Central)
4. Situational Crime Prevention
(Vidya-mitra)
5. Situational Crime Prevention
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6. Situational Crime Prevention
(criminology)
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