BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Education is a fundamental human right, and providing education to a country’s population is essential for long-term prosperity, peace, and stability within and between countries. In the topic of mathematics teaching and learning, the learning environment and instructors’ motivation on knowledge acquisition are both in need of consideration (Cox, 1997). What occurs in the classroom in terms of instructors’ psychological motivation and students’ capacity to study properly has an impact on students’ learning opportunities. The classroom activities, the repetitive behaviors in which students and teachers participate while they learn, are crucial because they form the information that is created (Dinhams, 1999). The efficacy of schools is enhanced by the availability of teaching/learning resources and the motivation of instructors, as these are essential factors that might lead to strong academic performance in students. The educational endeavor that will aid in the development of human resources is not given enough consideration. Low-quality mathematics education, in particular, is a pressing issue that must be addressed. All institutions or organizations, according to Maicibi (2003), are made up of human people (workers) and other non-human resources. He also claims that by bringing together the correct amount and quality of human resources, he can influence other resources to achieve institutional goals and objectives. As a result, every organization should make an effort to recruit and retain the greatest human resources. These viewpoints imply that well-trained and motivated mathematics instructors, if properly deployed in secondary schools, will produce well-rounded students who will excel academically (Ingram, 1997). Most instructors have been educated and have clear goals to guide their instruction, however effective teacher motivation and teaching/learning materials appear to be lacking. As a result, there has been a public uproar about low secondary school mathematics performance. Teacher motivation is higher in industrialized nations because instructors receive high-quality teacher training and development, and so have more opportunity to enhance their skills (Evans, 2000). They are effective in appropriate physical school settings. The United States of America (USA), the United Kingdom (UK), Canada, and Australia are among these countries. They stay motivated when they see their students succeed academically because they expect rewards. One observer noticed a decade ago that performance incentives in schools were “essentially unproven” (Hanushek, 1996) Since then, a slew of accountability schemes have been introduced, most notably under the cover of the United States’ No Child Left Behind Act, that reward or punish schools and teachers depending on some function of school test scores. There is growing worry that strict remuneration schemes undermine teachers’ incentives, reducing their motivation to work hard and increase student performance. Such concerns have prompted the adoption of monetary performance incentives in the United States and internationally, which are frequently dependent on the level or increase of students’ test-score performance. Nonetheless, pay-for-performance schemes are uncommon, and those that do exist are frequently small-scale and short-lived. Mexican public school teachers, on the other hand, have been eligible for big cash incentives based on student test performance and other variables since 1993. However, numerous social and environmental elements in many industrialized nations, such as the United States and the United Kingdom, are reinforcing unfavorable learner attitudes. These factors detract from teachers’ overall satisfaction with their jobs (Scott, 1997). Teachers’ negative opinions toward their jobs are linked to promotions to some extent. Teachers are dissatisfied and demotivated as a result of their perceptions of inequality in promotions. Promotions and strong demand for their services have resulted in significantly bigger income rises in the business and engineering areas in the industrialized world, compared to lesser growth in the teaching profession. Spence & Stewards (1997). Teachers in poor countries are often motivated by the need for collegiality. The existence of a community of practice in schools is most motivating in today’s industrialized world. Teachers are motivated, according to Sergiovanni (2004), when they can share a similar body of knowledge. This can only happen if instructors have access to discussion forums as well as training and development opportunities. Recognition from colleagues and the principal in the form of praise and constructive criticism has a good influence on teacher motivation, self-esteem, confidence, and sense of security. Teachers crave praise and feedback on their accomplishments, and this is likely to keep them motivated professionally. Steyn (2002) is a writer that has written a number of books. If they get scores over a cutoff in a nationwide evaluation, Mexican public school teachers are entitled for significant and permanent compensation increases. In addition to end-of-year student test results, the evaluation incorporates assessments of instructor background characteristics.
Identifying elements that influence teacher motivation in underdeveloped nations would help to shed insight on Nigeria’s predicament (Stenlund, 1999). This will assist the researcher in gaining a better knowledge of these difficulties and, in particular, teacher motivation in Nigeria. Because of the hierarchical character of schools and instructors’ traditions of working alone, they lack such ties (Leibowitz, 2003). Although it is evident that factors influencing teacher motivation are numerous and have an influence on the entire culture, the researcher wants to see how relevant they are to student performance.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The world of public education is changing; gone are the days when students strolled to their neighborhood school, when teaching positions were plentiful, and space was infinite. Today’s schools are frequently overcrowded, staffed by temporary professors, and in desperate physical and academic need of repair. Due to a lack of trained and experienced teachers in the United States, schools must go above the norm and implement reforms that will attract new educators to the field (Scott, 1997). To assure enthusiastic instructors and greater performance, schools cannot continue to rely on old methods of operation. Instead, school administrators must investigate innovative possibilities that go against the established educational grain. Tamara W. Schiff is a writer who lives in New York City (2010). Nigeria as a country has to put more emphasis on education and invest more funds. Teachers in the country are supposed to be treated with respect, and their salaries and allowances should not be delayed, but this is not the case; there are many teachers out there who have not received a dime in five months for the hard work and labor they put in; even private schools pay their teachers stipends as salaries; all of this, combined with other factors, discourages teachers from doing a good job of putting in their effort to tea. Students are failing, and teachers are unconcerned because they are not given special attention to promote their hard work; instead, the government continues to own them.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The primary goal of this research is to determine the effects of instructor motivation on student performance. The following are the specific objectives:
i. To examine the impact of teacher recognition on secondary school students’ academic achievement.
2. To investigate the impact of teacher professional development on secondary school students’ academic performance.
3. To investigate the impact of teacher advancement and development on students’ academic performance in secondary schools.
4. To examine the impact of instructors’ incentives on secondary school students’ academic achievement.
i. What is the impact of teacher recognition on secondary school students’ academic achievement?
2. What is the impact of teacher professional development on secondary school students’ academic performance?
3. What is the impact of teacher advancement and development on students’ academic performance in secondary schools?
4. What are the impacts of instructors’ incentives on secondary school students’ academic achievement?
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study is important for the government, stakeholders involved in policymaking, and secondary school administrators since it highlights significant tactics that inspire teaching staff to perform well at their jobs. It has identified measures in particular that will help to boost teacher morale and working circumstances while also counteracting issues that reduce teacher motivation. This study gave a nice comparison for various motivating tactics in different regions of the world on an international level. In the education sector, particularly among the impoverished in rural and urban areas.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This survey was intended to include all secondary schools in the country, but owing to time restrictions and other factors, it was confined to a selection of a few Loal Government areas in Zamfara State.
DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The main challenges encountered throughout this investigation were a lack of time and funds to get access to the stakeholders involved.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
MOTIVATION:A physiological or psychological deficiency or need that activates behavior or a drive that is arrived at 14 a goal or incentive is defined as motivation.
Academic Performance:This relates to how students approach their studies and complete assignments assigned by their professors.
Recognitionis the act of expressing gratitude for a job well done.
Incentives:Providing incentives for employees to enhance their working conditions.