What is new product development (NPD)?
New product development is the ideation, design, production, pricing, and launching of new products to your target customers to provide a solution that addresses an important need.
For new businesses (EBay, Shopify, Etsy, WooCommerce, Magento – or anyone with a great App idea) you should have…
- A great idea that is different from existing solutions
- An understanding of the market and what your customers want
- A plan to scale-up your idea into a product that can generate real revenues
- The budget to invest in design resources, or a partner to do product development
For established, successful companies, the best new product development organizations have…
- The right governance to select novel product concepts
- Sufficient funding to allow these new opportunities to grow
- NPD in its full form in marketing is a commitment to innovation
- A process for vetting and prioritizing them; for selecting the best ideas; and for the successful product launch of new-to-the-world concepts.
- A comprehensive view of a product’s stages as part of a product development life cycle.
New products are created through innovation in two ways, and there are successful models for each. There is no single way, but these two models explain the way most innovative companies manage their new product development process.
- Market Led: Amazon, Coke, Kellogg, and P&G
- Technology Led: Apple, Google, Netflix, and Tesla
One common misunderstanding is that technology companies often ignore market research, market testing, and assessing customer needs. This is not true. Successful business models always include some budget and staff for these research activities.
Through our consulting business we have had an opportunity to see critical success factors in New Product Development. We have codified this in a checklist that you can use to audit and improve your process.
Download The Checklist
The starting point begins with product development strategy because the strategy framework incorporates the firm’s risk tolerance and appetite for growth from new products, versus a product marketing led strategy to optimize profit and sales from in-market products. The next phase is either research for technology driven products or concept development for market driven products. After these stages, the project moves into development. Here we discuss the phases of new product development with the help of examples.
Stages of New Product Development
A typical new product development process has 6 steps with five gates.
- Step 1: Idea Generation (Ideation)
- Step 2: Product Definition
- Step 3: Prototyping
- Step 4: Detailed Design
- Step 5: Validation/Testing
- Step 6: Commercialization
Who is involved in new product development?
New product development is a cross-functional activity. It involves people from many different groups across your business. Cross-functional teams come together in the idea generation stages to develop the initial product concept.
In many industries, these functions might include design engineering or coding, testing; product management; sales, finance, and others. There is also a team leader or scrum master. A cross-functional team stays together throughout the new product development cycle. If your organization develops hardware products or works with a manufacturing partner, you may want to spell out the functional involvement in a New Product Introduction (NPI) process.
In addition, a Senior Management team oversees and approves the project as it develops. They have a responsibility for the investments they make in new product development.
The best product development processes have roles and responsibilities that are clearly defined – for the development team including product managers, and for the Senior Management team – so as to limit meddling by management. Additionally, a product development consultant can be involved.
NPD (New Product Development) examples
Apple protects new product concepts by separating the product design team from all other parts of the business. The team is shielded from bureaucracy and the usual hierarchy. They might even be discouraged from communicating with other employees.
The team then follows an articulated Apple New Product Process (ANPP) where the team answers in detail the what, who, why, how and when questions related to the product. Apple’s methodology depends on iteration around their product roadmap. They will continue to test and revise new products even after they have moved to the manufacturing phase.
Design teams report to the executive team directly. On Mondays, the executive team meets to review the products currently in development. When products move from design into production, an engineering program manager and a global supply manager take over the manufacturing cycle. .
Each product has an elaborate product launch plan which is held in strict secrecy. This action plan is called “Rules of the Road” and contains everything required for the commercialization and launch of the final product.
The tech giant uses a Design Sprint approach for new products. Each brief sprint conducts an experiment that the team then hands over to the next sprint to move the product to the finish line.
This approach uses five development stages led by a Sprint Master.
- Understand: the first phase is to comprehend the challenge. Teams brainstorm and conduct short, fast meetings to generate insights that define the end-user’s problem. Key acronym: HMW (How Might We).
- Sketch: Sketching is one approach to ideation. Each team member is then left alone to sketch their own solution to the user’s problem. The team then meets and members share their ideas. The team votes on the ideas and eliminates some.
- Decide: The team then attempts to reach a decision regarding which idea is the best solution for end-users. If the team does not come to an agreement then they might use a Decision Matrix to rate solutions against a set of requirements. They also rate the risk vs. value proposition of the proposed solutions.
- Prototype: Proposed solutions are built out in order to get real time feedback from testing. This stage is about getting rapid feedback to see what will and won’t constitute a viable product.
- Validate: The team then shows the prototype to real users, its target audience. The team may observe customers using the solution. The team then reviews and absorbs their findings together. The team leaves a trail of learnings for the next sprint, which will further the new product development project.
Nigel Hughes, Kellogg’s senior vice president of global research and development summarized his company’s new product development approach in early 2021:
“We’ve revamped our whole end-to-end innovation capability to focus on our core food design skills: investing in culinary to get closer to the real food experience; sensory, to equitably learn with the consumer; a design studio and rapid process lab to speed up our prototyping; a scaled-up pilot, which is now certified to make salable food; and finally, our Menuvation Center at The Hatchery in Chicago to showcase our foods with partners and customers.
“These changes give us a real leg up on the competition because they allow us to hit trends, influence new trends and grow our business. They’ve transformed our ability to innovate.”
Characteristics of a successful NPD organization
- Successful NPD starts with new product concepts in response to customers’ needs
- The best new product concepts are aligned with a corporate product development strategy
- The ideas are nurtured by a flexible, light weight process
- Agile cross functional teams perform the work in keeping with an articulated new product development process
- The result is a new product that delights customers while growing the business
Most essential to an effective new product process is to have the right governance to select novel product concepts; enough funding to allow these ideas to grow; and a process for vetting and prioritizing them.
Product Strategy starts at front end of the NPD process
One of the consistent challenges of NPD is managing the earliest stages, when concepts are in an embryonic state. Consistent steps for managing the front end of development helps to maintain focus on the tasks necessary to launch the projects that will best realize your strategy. Here you think like an entrepreneurs who avoid falling in love with the finished products but rather frame all concepts as MVP (Minimum Viable Products).
We urge companies to think of their early stage product concepts, however vague or aspirational, as an asset, as a product portfolio managed like a portfolio of capital investments. The process of concept development and testing, getting customer feedback on real world prototypes can’t be under estimated.
The assets in the product portfolio represent an as-yet unrealized potential. This is a simple but important shift in mental models. There should be many sources of new product ideas, including those that come through social media. Often these channels highlight rapid adoption – but you must do you homework before falling in love with a short lived fad.
Many ideas in the portfolio of early stage concepts are worth little or nothing to your company, for example they might not address your target market and often come out of causal brainstorming that are really glorified similar products without any differentiation. Others might be the next iPhone or Amazon, ready to disrupt markets, open new categories, enter new markets and earn enormous revenues. How can your company manage these vague concepts to leverage the best, weed out the rest, and develop the winners into new opportunities in a competitive marketplace?
Many companies maintain that the front end cannot have specific milestones and deliverables. We disagree. Just as projects within the product development pipeline have gates, reviews and timelines, you can manage the front end of development in a similar fashion.What you need is a solid marketing plan with a compelling narrative that describes the value proposition for the target customer.
An orderly front-end management process uses rational decision-making to select the right projects or right product idea to load into the pipeline. Though it can start with idea generation, it can’t be completed until you have verified the product-market fit with focus groups or through customer interviews.This starts with customer requirements, and ends with content development and testing.
A front end process also has milestones and budgets that are the measure of progress. Approved budgets unlock new projects. Product discovery is then the process of translating strategy into action.
Steps and Deliverables
To bring order to the front end of development, first create two decision points that help to:
- Manage an orderly starting point for projects
- Staff projects properly with the right resources
- Ensure that the projects will address any factors that might impede fast and predictable development
- Show meaningful commercial potential for your new product ideas
Define the placement of these decision points. Select two points in time to review projects at a high level.
- First Review (move from Pre-Discovery to Product Discovery): ensures that the product idea is worthy of forming a cross functional team and outlines the steps to test the hypothesis – this phase is complete when the effort transitions from one individual to a small team, typically 10-15% of the way down the path
- Second Review (move from Product Discovery into Development): ensures that the team demonstrates feasibility, defines the broad parameters of the product offering, and addresses risk. This phase should ensure that the team is ready to enter development, that they grasp the major risks, and that the team is within a quarter or two of entering the formal development pipeline.
A front-end product innovation system also includes a related set of deliverables that proposed programs (products, technologies, and investigations) must pass through in order to ensure that the team has considered both the risks and the proposed program’s alignment with strategy.
These deliverables in the Product Discovery phase may include:
- First Review/Approval: The leadership team reviews the proposed opportunity for strategic fit and approves or denies requests for further investment
- Market Assessment: Validates and documents the under-served market need
- Commercial Feasibility Assessment: Describes the target segments, potential customers and documents the commercial potential
- Technology Assessment: Summarizes proposed technologies, missing elements, critical partners, and known technical risks
- Second Review/Approval: The leadership team reviews the request to enter the product process and approves or denies requests for further investment
Other documents might include:
- Business Case/Business Analysis: Includes relevant estimates for market share, conversion rates, click through rates, activation rates, consumables trail, cannibalization, ASPs, NPV, IRR, payback period, gross profit, and operating profit. Also, may include an explanation of the business risks
- Business models: New products may require new ways to think about business models such as a shift towards SAAS and recurring annual revenue models
- Business Assessment: Verifies commercial and, where applicable, regulatory readiness and might include prototyping to get better feedback
- Early Phase Report: Provides evaluation of technological feasibility, manufacturability, and costs
- Updated Portfolio Roadmaps: Prioritizes newly approved projects
A Venture Capital Model
The way for more mature companies to create a stream of product concepts is to rethink NPD in terms of a venture capital model. Think of the product teams within an organization as so many start-ups, funded and monitored by venture capital. Within the company, new product development projects compete for unallocated funding, using a venture capital model, where a small number of executives continually sift through bottom-up ideas and fund the most promising.
Within this model, a company needs a governance structure that constantly selects teams pursuing new ideas and creates a protected space for innovation. Next, it needs a process for vetting new ideas to reveal their potential. Finally, it needs an Agile funding model with a substantial budget earmarked for innovation.
- Governance: Get the right leaders to the table and give them oversight of fragile innovations. They allocate capital from the pool of venture funds, as and when needed. We call this team the venture board. They may or may not oversee all of product development
- Process: Establish a process for receiving and selecting ideas; identify how to transfer ideas into development using clear entrance and exit criteria.
- Finance: Create a specific investment for the strategic innovation portfolio and approve it in the budget year. Make it large enough to start at least three projects (in round figures, about $10M per thousand employees).
The venture board manages the innovation portfolio. It greenlights programs or segments for investment, reviewing the allocation of resources and the budgeting. The venture board performs a high-level review of the budget on a regular basis, twice per year in some companies.
It is also this board’s responsibility as executives to foster any cultural changes needed to support the portfolio of innovative ideas. They own the product portfolio and are tasked with maintaining this perspective.
No tradeoff between innovative new products and speed
Some companies settle for a rapid follower approach to product development (a “me too” strategy) because they believe there is a dichotomy between innovation and speed. They believe that if they slow down their NPD process to introduce truly new and innovative products, then their development time will increase. This is a classic false dichotomy.
Companies that create truly innovative offerings, companies like Amazon with its platform, Apple with its iTunes, or Uber’s drive sharing services, create their own markets. It’s impossible to be late to a market your company has created.
Even with less innovative offerings, often new technologies help to speed product development projects to market. Not only do new technologies spawn products and services but some of them enable fast time to market.
With the approach described above, combining agile teams with the right governance, funding and process, companies can have both innovative products and fast time to market.
One of the keys to having the best of both worlds is to have a prioritized list of only the most essential features. Narrowing the product definition to the essential few features favors NPD speed.
Tips for improving NPD
Have a long-term vision
New product development requires patience. Past the start-up stage, a “quick win” mentality won’t get it done. Creating a stream of new products over a long period of time necessitates a vision, a strategy for how your company will get there, and the budgets and governance structure to support and execute the strategy.
Integrate technical and customer perspectives into the executive team leading NPD
Tech companies tend to be tech driven, but the right executive team to serve as a board for approving investments in NPD (venture board) includes both technical and customer (Product Manager) skill sets. Make sure the customer perspective is present when decisions are made about product development and marketing strategy, especially when you’re idea screening.
Support NPD with appropriate funding
Sure, it’s basic, but how many companies nurture early stage NPD to get the best return from their product portfolio? Seed funding for new ideas, tied into budgets and strategy at the corporate level, is essential to grow new product concepts into fully fledged offerings in the marketplace.
Create a product portfolio strategy
Companies that create a stream of new products allocate their investments strategically within a portfolio of offerings. They create a marketing mix divided between their core business, products in adjacent markets, and completely innovative new products. The investments in these different categories are determined strategically, often based on the company’s risk profile.
Make sure the organization is right-sized for the task
Effective NPD depends upon sufficient resources. In larger companies, often too many resources are committed to maintaining existing products and managing the product life cycle. The skills needed for tomorrow’s products are limited so the resources for truly new products are limited. Also, too many key resources, like a coder with specialized skills, are overloaded. The right mix for product development is to have these key contributors on not more than two projects at a time.
Have a method for capturing the Voice of the Customer
Whether it’s Design Thinking or some other form of market-driven product definition, it is essential to have a lifeline to the customer in the fuzzy front end. Then create a method for translating the voice of the customer into a specific product with the most saleable features.
Avoid the tendency to overcommit on features
Too many companies promise the moon when it comes to features and then underdeliver. Begin with an MVP with the basic functionality and then use test marketing as part of the product development process…and as soon as possible. Customers will help you understand which features are crucial. Overcommitting and under-delivering reflects poorly on the brand. Delivering on your promises, and then improving the product incrementally over time is the better alternative.
The new product development process in 6 steps. New product development is the process of bringing an original product idea to market. Although it differs by industry, it can essentially be broken down into six stages: ideation, research, planning, prototyping, sourcing, and costing.What is new product development and steps involved in NPD process? ›
New product development (NPD) is a process of taking a product or service from conception to market. The process sets out a series of stages that new products typically go through, beginning with ideation and concept generation, and ending with the product's introduction to the market.What are the important steps you need in planning your NPD strategy? ›
Idea to concept
complete an accurate costing of the product and logistics. identify the look and feel of the product and packaging. refine the research of your target markets and competitors. establish an implementation overview plan.
Five phases guide the new product development process for small businesses: idea generation, screening, concept development, product development and, finally, commercialization.What are 6 keys of product success? ›
- Make Sure You Have a Product Fit. The first steps of preparing for a successful product launch begin at the genesis of product development. ...
- Know Your Metrics. ...
- Conduct User Research & Market Evaluations. ...
- Develop Your Messaging. ...
- Build an Early Customer Base. ...
- Collect & Implement Feedback.
A UX Design Process can be defined in different ways, but the most common one holds six stages: Understand, Define, Create, Prototype, Test and Implement.Why NPD process is important? ›
The primary reason for any new product development is to provide value to its customers. The increasing demands of customers for innovation & new technology calls for the need to develop new or existing products. Otherwise, there is no reason to pour in huge amounts of money in the first place.Why is strategy important in new product development NPD? ›
A well-tailored NPD strategy will enable companies to organise their product planning, understand their customers, accurately plan and efficiently use its resource for NPD. An NPD strategy will also help to avoid the above-mentioned pitfalls and increase the chance of product success.What is NPD model? ›
1. A model that is divided into two stages that includes concept development and implementation. In between these stages, a concept freeze point is drawn to segregate the activities of the two stages. Learn more in: The Impact of Food Trends on Menu Innovation.What are the 6 steps in developing and implementing strategy? ›
- Define your goals.
- Conduct proper research.
- Map out any risks.
- Schedule all milestones.
- Assign tasks.
- Allocate helpful resources.
In sum, narcissism exists on a spectrum ranging from domineering and extraverted to introverted and neurotic. The core features of narcissism are antagonism, self-importance, and entitlement, making narcissists disagreeable, uncooperative partners and work associates.How can I be good at product development? ›
- Empathize with users.
- Define the problem.
- Brainstorm potential solutions.
- Build a prototype.
- Test your solution.
Stage 5: Product rollout and iteration.
This is essentially the launch of your minimum viable product (MVP). It's common for your first release to include only the core features so that your product can simply move forward and start generating sales figures.
The product development process encompasses all steps needed to take a product from concept to market availability. This includes identifying a market need, researching the competitive landscape, conceptualizing a solution, developing a product roadmap, building a minimum viable product, etc.What is the most important phase in product process? ›
The idea stage is often the most important step for brainstorming new products because it is where most product ideas come from. Sometimes a SWOT analysis (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis is used as a vehicle to prioritize ideas in this first step.What are the 6 critical success factors? ›
- Shared Change Purpose. ...
- Effective Change Leadership. ...
- Powerful Engagement Processes. ...
- Committed Local Sponsors. ...
- Strong Personal Connection. ...
- Sustained Personal Performance.
The building blocks of an effective marketing strategy include the 6 P's of marketing: product, price, place, promotion, people, and presentation. The effective integration of the 6 P's of marketing can serve as the foundation for an effective growth strategy.What is the most important aspect of new product development? ›
The first and most important reason for any new development is to provide new value to the customer. Without this, there is no reason for them to trade their money for the new device. However, if the product or service offers overwhelming value, then customers will flock to it.What are the 6 principles of design? ›
Start with the six principles of design: balance, pattern, rhythm, emphasis, contrast, and unity. Just as instructional design models and methodologies shape your training strategy, so should these principles shape your basic visual strategy. By applying them, you can create high-impact visuals.What are the 6 six current design principles that you need to consider in making a web design? ›
- The power of white space. ...
- Use the F-pattern. ...
- Apply contrast and color. ...
- Don't forget mobile-first design. ...
- Use personal photos to build trust. ...
- Keep it simple.
She says despite their negative traits, narcissists can often be very successful in the workplace. This is due to their charisma, extreme self-confidence, and willingness to take big risks.What is the first step of NPD process? ›
1. Idea Generation. The new product development process begins with idea generation, where you brainstorm an idea (or ideas) that will help you solve an existing customer problem in a new and innovative way.What are the challenges in new product development? ›
- Ideation. The first checkpoint in product development is idea generation. ...
- Market viability. ...
- Product roadmap problems. ...
- Workflow management. ...
- Product engineering issues. ...
- Pricing policy. ...
- The pace of innovation. ...
New Product Development (NPD) is the a set of design, engineering, and research processes which combine to create and launch a new product to market. Unlike regular product development, NPD is specifically about developing a brand new idea and seeing it through the entire product development process.What are the different types of NPD? ›
Experts work with five main types of narcissism: overt, covert, communal, antagonistic, and malignant narcissism. They can all affect how you see yourself and interact with others.What is NPDS framework? ›
There are several different models or frameworks you can adopt in your organization to effectively and efficiently build new products. Some of the popular models include the new product development (NPD) process, the IDEO process, the Scorecard-Markov model, the Booz, Allen, and Hamilton (BAH) model, and others.How do you evaluate NPD? ›
- Overinflated sense of self-importance.
- Constant thoughts about being more successful, powerful, smart, loved or attractive than others.
- Feelings of superiority and desire to only associate with high-status people.
Specifically, six key learning strategies from cognitive research can be applied to education: spaced practice, interleaving, elaborative interrogation, concrete examples, dual coding, and retrieval practice.What are the six 6 strategic management process? ›
Skipping these important steps can leave your organization without direction. Read ahead to learn more about the six vital elements of strategic planning: vision, mission, objectives, strategy, approach, and tactics.What are 6 questions in the planning process? ›
Here are six questions to ask, which you might have not considered.
- Why do we exist?
- How will we behave?
- Where are we going?
- How will we succeed?
- What is most important right “now”?
- What isn't important?
- Don't let them talk to you any way they want. ...
- Don't let them treat you in a disrespectful or hurtful manner. ...
- Ask them not to share your personal information with others. ...
- Demand they respect your opinions and thoughts. ...
- Insist that they listen when you say “no”
Treatment for narcissistic personality disorder is talk therapy, also called psychotherapy. Medicines may be included in your treatment if you have other mental health conditions, such as depression.Is there a scale for NPD? ›
The 43-item NPS employs a 4-likert scale (highly agree = 3, moderately agree = 2, slightly agree = 1, disagree = 0). Total possible scores range between 0 and 78, with higher scores indicating greater narcissistic personality symptoms.What are 2 skills required for product developer? ›
To be successful as a product developer, you should have engineering and design knowledge, solid knowledge of the prototype design process, and strong written and verbal communication skills.What skills do you need to be a product developer? ›
The skills you need to build a successful career in product development vary depending on your role in the product team. Some essential skills include creativity, problem-solving, attention to detail, and strong communication. As you look through job advertisements, you'll notice that product jobs often pay very well.How do I prepare for a product development interview? ›
The best way to prepare for your Product Manager interview is to practice, practice, practice. Create an action plan and ask a friend or peer to do a mock interview with you and go over potential questions. If possible, find an experienced Product Manager to go over interview questions with you.What is the most important part of the product development process and why? ›
The most critical step of the new product release process is research and testing. Though a product might seem like a smart idea at its conception, a deeper look could reveal major vulnerabilities. For instance, you might discover that another company tried to release a similar product with dismal results.What is the most important step before testing a new product? ›
Step 1: Idea Generation
It is also valuable to review any existing primary research a company has conducted. One rich source is customer satisfaction research, which can be used to identify frustrations and gaps in current product offerings.
Although the product development process differs by industry, it can essentially be broken down into seven stages: ideation, research, planning, prototyping, sourcing, costing, and commercialization. Use the following development framework to bring your own product idea to market.What are the 6 stages of product life cycle? ›
The product life cycle is the length of time from when a product is introduced to the consumer market up until it declines or is no longer being sold. This cycle can be broken up into different stages, including—development, introduction, growth, maturity, saturation, and decline.
Product development strategy relies on developing new products or modifying existing products so they appear new, and offering those products to current or new markets. When executed successfully, it can lead to growth in sales and market share.What is the most difficult step in new product development? ›
The most challenging stage in product development is research and testing. Your product might seem like a success at first thought, but a thorough peek might uncover extensive complications. For example, your research might reveal that another organization tried to launch a similar product but with poor results.How do you explain product life cycle? ›
When a product enters a market, it has a life cycle that traces its journey from being new and valuable to old and obsolete. It is referred to as the product life cycle or PLC. It (PLC) identifies and explains four stages of product development- introduction, growth, maturity, and decline.What is the most important factor in a product? ›
- A comprehensive product launch plan. ...
- Having a quality, of value product. ...
- Using customer feedback to adapt your product. ...
- Comprehensive messaging and marketing. ...
- Well-developed and satisfying customer experience.
- Prenatal/infancy. From conception through the earliest years of life or babyhood. ...
- Early childhood. The time in a child's life before they begin school full-time. ...
- School age. The years from kindergarten through middle school. ...
- Transition to adulthood. ...
- Adulthood. ...
- Idea Generation. The first step in the new-product development process is to come up with some ideas that will satisfy unmet needs. ...
- Idea Screening. ...
- Business Analysis. ...
- Prototype Development. ...
- Test Marketing. ...
In summary, the human life cycle has six main stages: foetus, baby, child, adolescent, adult and elderly. Although we describe the human life cycle in stages, people continually and gradually change from day to day throughout all of these stages.What are the 7 stages of development? ›
- Infant Development.
- Toddler Development.
- Preschooler Development.
- Middle Childhood Development.
- Adolescent Development.
- Adult Development.
The most important reason for monitoring each child's development is to determine whether a child's development is on track. Looking for developmental milestones is important to understanding each child's development and behavior. Milestones can help explain a child's behavior.Why are life stages important? ›
To gain a better understanding of one's own life experiences. This can help people personally reach an understanding of what childhood events shaped their adulthood. To gain knowledge of how social context impacts development.
The personal selling process consists of six stages: (1) prospecting, (2) preapproach, (3) approach, (4) presentation, (5) close, and (6) follow-up (Table 2).What are the six stages in adoption of new innovative products? ›
There are six product adoption stages—awareness, interest, evaluation, trial, activation, and adoption. Product adoption isn't always a linear process—users can jump between stages. There are also five adopter profiles—innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority, and laggards.What are the six steps in the new product development process starting with the? ›
1. The six steps in the new-product development process are Idea generation, development, product screenings, testing, product analysis, and commercialization.Who developed 6 stages of development? ›
Lawrence Kohlberg, an American psychologist, was among the pioneers of moral development research. Building on from the original propositions of Jean Piaget, Kohlberg theorised that humans develop their moral judgements in 6 stages.What is the six step strategy for identifying customer needs? ›
The model consists in a “Plan – Learn – Focus – Develop – Launch – Analyze” cycle to become customer driven and to develop breakthrough solutions and value: Planning Strategic choices.What are the 6 basic customer needs in service explain each? ›
|SIX BASIC CUSTOMER NEEDS|
|Friendliness The most basic need of all and is usually associated with being greeted politely and courteously.||Greet customer politely and courteously|
|Fairness All customers want to be treated fairly.||Treat all customers equally|