Advancing the sharing of research results for the life sciences (2023)

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bioRxiv (pronounced "bio-archive") is a free online archive and distribution service for unpublished preprints in the life sciences. It is operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a not-for-profit research and educational institution. By posting preprints on bioRxiv, authors are able to make their findings immediately available to the scientific community and receive feedback on draft manuscripts before they are submitted to journals.

Articles are not peer-reviewed, edited, or typeset before being posted online. However, all articles undergo a basic screening process for offensive and/or non-scientific content and for material that might pose a health or biosecurity risk and are checked for plagiarism. No endorsement of an article’s methods, assumptions, conclusions, or scientific quality by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory is implied by its appearance in bioRxiv. An article may be posted prior to, or concurrently with, submission to a journal but should not be posted if it has already been accepted for publication by a journal.

Authors are free to submit a revised version of an article at any time prior to its formal acceptance by a journal by clicking "Submit a Revision" within the Author Area. Once posted on bioRxiv, articles are citable and therefore cannot be removed.


bioRxiv accepts preprints of articles covering all aspects of research in the life sciences. When posting an article, the author assigns it to one of the following categories:

  • Animal Behavior and Cognition
  • Biochemistry
  • Bioengineering
  • Bioinformatics
  • Biophysics
  • Cancer Biology
  • Cell Biology
  • Developmental Biology
  • Ecology
  • Evolutionary Biology
  • Genetics
  • Genomics
  • Immunology
  • Microbiology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Neuroscience
  • Paleontology
  • Pathology
  • Pharmacology and Toxicology
  • Physiology
  • Plant Biology
  • Scientific Communication and Education
  • Synthetic Biology
  • Systems Biology
  • Zoology

Articles in the physical sciences, mathematics, or social sciences should only be posted on bioRxiv if they have direct relevance to the life sciences. Articles in these areas that are not relevant to life sciences should instead be posted on servers such as arXiv, which bioRxiv is intended to complement.


Articles in bioRxiv are categorized as New Results, Confirmatory Results, or Contradictory Results. New Results describe an advance in a field. Confirmatory Results largely replicate and confirm previously published work, whereas Contradictory Results largely replicate experimental approaches used in previously published work but the results contradict and/or do not
support it.


Readers may add public comments to articles on bioRxiv. Comments are moderated to ensure they conform to the standards of normal professional discourse. Readers are also free to contact authors directly.

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Authors retain copyright and choose from several distribution/reuse options under which to make the article available (CC BY, CC BY-NC, CC BY-ND, CC BY-NC-ND, CC0, or no reuse). By posting on bioRxiv, authors explicitly consent to text mining of their work (e.g., by search engines or researchers).

bioRxiv reserves the right to identify and remove any articles that contain plagiarized material or describe experimental work that is not performed in accordance with the relevant ethical standards for research using animals or human subjects.


Most research journals allow posting on preprint servers such as bioRxiv prior to publication. A list of journal policies can be found on Wikipedia and SHERPA/RoMEO. Authors should consult these lists and other sources of information before posting on bioRxiv.


bioRxiv will usually automatically add a link to the published version within several weeks of journal publication. On occasion a match is not made because the title or authors have changed or due to other contingencies. Please wait 2-3 weeks before contacting bioRxiv staff should the link not appear.


Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory is committed to protecting the privacy of authors, preprint server Affiliates, and other users of the bioRxiv submission system and website. Click to read the full Privacy Policy.


Preprints deposited in bioRxiv can be cited using their digital object identifier (DOI). bioRxiv DOIs assigned prior to December 11, 2019, have a simple six-digit suffix, whereas those assigned after this date will also include the date stamp for the day of submission approval (see below). Revised versions of manuscripts retain the same DOI assigned to the first version.

Example: Author AN, Author BT. 2013. My article title. bioRxiv doi: 10.1101/2019.12.11.123456

If there are multiple versions of the preprint and you wish to cite a specific version, you can do so by adding the version-specific URL.

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Example: doi: 10.1101/2019.12.11.123456 version 2,

Advisory Board

  • Anurag Acharya
  • Rick Anderson
    University of Utah
  • Stefano Bertuzzi
    American Society for Microbiology
  • Jonathan Eisen
    UC Davis
  • Paul Ginsparg
    Cornell and arXiv
  • Eric Green
  • Hopi Hoekstra
  • Leonid Kruglyak
    UCLA and HHMI
  • Frank Norman
    Francis Crick Institute
  • Bernd Pulverer
  • John Sack
    HighWire Press
  • Sandra Schmid
    UT Southwestern
  • Pamela Silver
  • Eric Topol
    Scripps Research Institute
  • Leslie Vosshall
    Rockefeller University
  • Fiona Watt
    King's College London


bioRxiv Affiliates are members of the scientific community who provide feedback on the service, act as advocates, and help in screening material submitted.

  • Barak Akabayov
  • Florin Albeanu
  • Rubén Rellán Álvarez
  • Kristian Andersen
  • Alexander Anderson
  • Giridhar N Athrey
  • Gurinder Atwall
  • Nadia Aubin-Horth
  • Prachee Avasthi
  • Sylvain Baillet
  • David Baltrus
  • Arkarup Banerjee
  • Paddy Barrett
  • David Basanta
  • Srinjan Basu
  • Gira Bhabha
  • Needhi Bhalla
  • Ami Bhatt
  • Somer Bishop
  • Jamie Blundell
  • Cedric Boekx
  • Martin Bootman
  • Lisa Bouchier-Hayes
  • Patrice Brassard
  • James Briscoe
  • C. Titus Brown
  • Benoit Bruneau
  • David Bryant
  • Simon Bullock
  • Gaétan Burgio
  • J. Brian Byrd
  • David Calderwood
  • Thiago Carvalho
  • Arturo Casadevall
  • Agathe Chaigne
  • Sreekanth Chalasani
  • Jerry Chipuk
  • Anne Churchland
  • Vivian Ciaramitaro
  • Laureen Connell
  • Graham Coop
  • Stephen Curry
  • Maitreyi Das
  • Humberto Julio Debat
  • Laura DeMare
  • Brent Derry
  • Gautam Dey
  • Stephen Eglen
  • Damian Ekiert
  • Yaniv Erlich
  • Elisa Fadda
  • Michael Feigin
  • Shawn Ferguson
  • Stephen Floor
  • James Fraser
  • Jeremy Freeman
  • Lillian Fritz-Laylin
  • Ginger Gamble
  • Emma Ganley
  • Alexander Gann
  • Ethan Garner
  • Liz Gaskell
  • Philip Gerlee
  • Satrajit Ghosh
  • Nathalie Grandvaux
  • Casey Greene
  • Theanne Griffith
  • Chris Gunter
  • Amanda Haage
  • Sung Han
  • Kenneth Harris
  • Michael Hendricks
  • Ricardo Henriques
  • Laura Hercher
  • Michael Hoffman
  • Ian Holmes
  • Rosy Hosking
  • S. Abid Hussaini
  • Michael Imperiale
  • Guillaume Jacquemet
  • Nafisa Jadavji
  • James Johnson
  • Sophien Kamoun
  • Craig D. Kaplan
  • Alex Keene
  • Alyson Kelvin
  • Alex Kentsis
  • Andrew Kern
  • Bethany Kerr
  • Justin Kinney
  • Douglas Kojetin
  • Christophe Leterrier
  • Timothee Lionnet
  • Marc Lipsitch
  • Kevin Liu
  • Nick Loman
  • Anice Lowen
  • Julius Lucks
  • Gholson Lyon
  • Daniel MacArthur
  • Paul Macklin
  • Robert Majovski
  • M. Chiara Manzini
  • Seth Martin
  • Alfonso Martinez-Arias
  • Andriy Marusyk
  • Chris Mason
  • Philippa Matthews
  • David McCandlish
  • Gavin McStay
  • Devang Mehta
  • Natasha Mhatre
  • Adam Miller
  • Kevin Mitchell
  • Partha Mitra
  • Tim Mosca
  • Richard Murray
  • Evan Muse
  • Inke Näthke
  • Stuart Neil
  • Bryce Nickels
  • Andrew Oberst
  • Kelly Ormond
  • Hysell Oviedo
  • Darryl Pappin
  • Medha Pathak
  • Bret Pearson
  • Ullas Pedmale
  • Federico Pelisch
  • Alon Peltz
  • Vasileios Petrou
  • Adrien Peyrache
  • Joe Pickrell
  • Katerina Politi
  • Fillip Port
  • Jennifer Raff
  • Blake Richards
  • Rebecca Riggins
  • Nicolas Robine
  • Marc Robinson-Rechavi
  • Joseph Ross
  • Rachel A. Ross
  • Jeffrey Ross-Ibarra
  • Loic Royer
  • Stephen Royle
  • Rachel Rubino
  • Selena Sagan
  • Eric Sawey
  • Aylwyn Scally
  • Anna Schapiro
  • Mike Schatz
  • David Schoppik
  • Ben Schulz
  • Ian Scott
  • Jacob Scott
  • Erdinc Sezgin
  • Stephen Shea
  • Jason Sheltzer
  • Nikolai Slavov
  • Maria Smit
  • Alice Soragni
  • Raffaella Sordella
  • David Stephens
  • Andrew Su
  • Stephen Tait
  • Rita Tewari
  • Winston Timp
  • Jessica Tollkuhn
  • Pavel Tomancak
  • Chris Toseland
  • Stephen Tucker
  • Anne Urai
  • Nicolas Vabret
  • Eugene Valkov
  • Mick Watson
  • Evan Weber
  • Ethan Weiss
  • Jim Woodgett
  • Andrew G. York

Frequently Asked Questions

Answers to many common questions can be found on bioRxiv's FAQ.


bioRxiv provides free and unrestricted access to all articles posted on the server. We believe this should apply not only to human readers but also to machine analysis of the content. A growing variety of resources have been created to facilitate this access.


bioRxiv can save authors time in submitting papers to journals or peer review services by transmitting their manuscript files and metadata directly from bioRxiv. This means authors do not have to spend time re-loading manuscript files and re-entering author information at the journal or peer review service website. Partners currently participating in B2J are listed below (scroll to view full list).

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  • Access Microbiology
  • ACS Bio and Med Chem Au
  • ACS Chemical Biology
  • ACS Chemical Neuroscience
  • ACS Infectious Diseases
  • ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science
  • ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
  • ACS Synthetic Biology
  • Acta Crystallographica Section D
  • American Journal of Human Genetics
  • American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology
  • American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
  • Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
  • Applied and Environmental Microbiology
  • Arctic Science
  • Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
  • Autophagy
  • Biochemical Journal
  • Biochemistry
  • Bioconjugate Chemistry
  • BioDesign Research
  • Biology Letters
  • Biology Methods and Protocols
  • Biology Open
  • Biomolecular Concepts
  • Biophysical Journal
  • Biophysical Reports
  • Biophysics and Physicobiology
  • BioScience
  • Bioscience Reports
  • BioTechniques
  • BMC Biology
  • BME Frontiers
  • BMJ Open Science
  • Brain, Behavior and Evolution
  • Cancer Research Communications
  • Cell Cycle
  • Cell Genomics
  • Cell Reports
  • ChemBioChem
  • Chemistry—A European Journal
  • Chemistry—An Asian Journal
  • Chemistry & Biodiversity
  • ChemMedChem
  • Circulation Research
  • Clinical & Experimental Immunology
  • Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
  • Clinical Science
  • Complex Psychiatry
  • The CRISPR Journal
  • Current Biology
  • Cytogenetic and Genome Research
  • Database
  • Development
  • Developmental Neuroscience
  • Diabetologia
  • Discovery Immunology
  • Disease Models & Mechanisms
  • DNA Research
  • Drug Metabolism and Disposition
  • eLife
  • The EMBO Journal
  • EMBO Molecular Medicine
  • EMBO Reports
  • eNeuro
  • Epigenetics
  • Environmental Epigenetics
  • Environmental Health Perspectives
  • Evolution
  • Evolution Letters
  • Evolution, Medicine & Public Health
  • Experimental Physiology
  • F1000Research
  • FASEB BioAdvances
  • The FASEB Journal
  • FEMS Microbes
  • FEMS Yeast Research
  • Fly
  • Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
  • Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
  • Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
  • Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
  • Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
  • Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
  • Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution
  • Frontiers in Genetics
  • Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
  • Frontiers in Immunology
  • Frontiers in Marine Science
  • Frontiers in Microbiology
  • Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
  • Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
  • Frontiers in Neural Circuits
  • Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
  • Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
  • Frontiers in Neuroscience
  • Frontiers in Nutrition
  • Frontiers in Pharmacology
  • Frontiers in Physiology
  • Frontiers in Plant Science
  • Frontiers in Psychiatry
  • Frontiers in Sports and Active Living
  • Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems
  • Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
  • Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
  • Frontiers in Veterinary Science
  • Function
  • Future Science OA
  • GEN Biotechnology
  • Genes & Development
  • G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics
  • Genetics
  • Genetics in Medicine
  • Genome
  • Genome Biology
  • Genome Biology and Evolution
  • Genome Research
  • GigaScience
  • Health Data Science
  • Human Genetics and Genomics Advances
  • Immunotherapy Advances
  • Infection and Immunity
  • Intervirology
  • iScience
  • JAC - Antimicrobial Resistance
  • JCI Insight
  • Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
  • Journal of Animal Science
  • Journal of Apicultural Research
  • Journal of Bacteriology
  • Journal of Biomedical Optics
  • Journal of Bryology
  • The Journal of Cell Biology
  • Journal of Cell Science
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation
  • Journal of Clinical Microbiology
  • Journal of Evolutionary Biology
  • Journal of Experimental Biology
  • Journal of Experimental Botany
  • The Journal of Experimental Medicine
  • Journal of Food Safety
  • The Journal of General Physiology
  • Journal of General Virology
  • The Journal of Histotechnology
  • The Journal of Immunology
  • Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
  • Journal of Innate Immunity
  • Journal of Insect Science
  • Journal of Medical Microbiology
  • Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
  • Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
  • Journal of Natural Products
  • Journal of Neurophysiology
  • The Journal of Neuroscience
  • Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
  • The Journal of Physiology
  • Journal of Proteome Research
  • Journal of Remote Sensing
  • Journal of the Royal Society Interface
  • Journal of Urban Ecology
  • Journal of Virology
  • The Journals of Gerontology, Series A: Biological Sciences
  • The Journals of Gerontology, Series A: Medical Sciences
  • Kidney360
  • Kidney International
  • Kidney International Reports
  • Learning & Memory
  • Legume Science
  • Life Science Alliance
  • mBio
  • Medical Cannabis and Cannabinoids
  • Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
  • Microbial Genomics
  • Microbiology
  • Microbiology Resource Announcements
  • Microbiology Spectrum
  • Microscopy
  • Molecular and Cellular Biology
  • Molecular Biology and Evolution
  • Molecular Biology of the Cell
  • Molecular Ecology
  • Molecular Ecology Resources
  • Molecular Pharmaceutics
  • Molecular Pharmacology
  • Molecular Plant
  • Molecular Systems Biology
  • Molecular Vision
  • mSphere
  • mSystems
  • Mycologia
  • NAR Cancer
  • NAR Genomics and Bioinformatics
  • Neurodegenerative Diseases
  • Neuronal Signaling
  • Neurophotonics
  • Neuroscience of Consciousness
  • New Phytologist
  • Nicotine & Tobacco Research
  • Nucleic Acids Research
  • Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Research
  • Open Biology
  • Ornithological Applications
  • Ornithology
  • Oxford Open Climate Change
  • Oxford Open Immunology
  • Oxford Open Neuroscience
  • Pathogens and Immunity
  • PeerJ
  • Physical Therapy
  • The Plant Cell
  • Plant and Cell Physiology
  • Plant Communications
  • Plant Direct
  • Plant Phenomics
  • Plant Physiology
  • PLOS Biology
  • PLOS Climate
  • PLOS Computational Biology
  • PLOS Genetics
  • PLOS Medicine
  • PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
  • PLOS One
  • PLOS Pathogens
  • PLOS Sustainability and Transformation
  • PLOS Water
  • PNAS
  • PNAS Nexus
  • Precision Clinical Medicine
  • Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
  • Re:GEN Open
  • Research
  • Research in Microbiology
  • Review Commons
  • RNA
  • RNA Biology
  • Royal Society Open Science
  • Science
  • Science Advances
  • Science Immunology
  • Science Signaling
  • Science Translational Medicine
  • Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
  • StemJournal
  • Synthetic Biology
  • Toxicological Sciences
  • Translational Animal Science
  • Translational Neuroscience
  • Virus Evolution

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