- What is Schachter and Singer's theory of emotion?
- What did Schachter and Singer argue?
- What are the two factors in Schachter and Singer's two
- How does Schachter and Singer's theory of emotions differ from the James Lange view?
Terms in this set (42)
Theory of Emotions
Theory of Emotions
Your interpretation of a stimulus evokes autonomic changes and sometimes muscle actions
According to common sense, you feel sad and therefore you cry. You becomeafraid and therefore you tremble. You feel angry and therefore your face turns red. In 1884 William James and Carl Lange independently proposed the opposite. According to the James-Lange theory, your interpretation of a stimulus evokes autonomic changes and sometimes muscle actions. Your perception of those changes is the feeling aspect of your emotion.
Evidence of Theory of Emotions
If Body ReactionDecreases
Emotional Feelings Decrease
What did this research lead Schachter and Singer to propose about the nature of emotions?
According to Schachter and Singer's theory, physiological arousal determines the intensity of an emotion, but a cognitive appraisal determines which emotion one feels.
Schachter and Singer Example
Youare going on a first date with someone you hope will find you exciting. According to Schachter and Singer's theory, should you plan a date walking through an art gallery or riding on roller coasters?
According to Schachter and Singer's theory, you should plan a date riding on roller coasters. I f your date gets emotionally excited, he or she may attribute the arousal to you. (However, if you are dating someone who gets nauseated on roller coasters, you should change your strategy!)
Why do some psychologists believe that there are basic universal emotions? What classic research has been done to support this notion?
Darwin noted that there are a few facial expressions of emotion that occur throughout the world, and favored the idea of a few basic emotions
Basic emotions should emerge early in life w/o requiring much experience
Basic emotions should be similar across cultures
Eachbasic emotion should have its own facial expression and characteristic physiology
Paul Ekman: Six Basic Emotions,
What is an alternate model of emotion described in your text?
Circumplex model, emotions range on a continuum from pleasure to misery andalong another continuum from arousal to sleepiness
Happy mood increases your readiness to explore new ideas and opportunities
How do the Trolley Dilemma and the Footbridge Dilemma reveal about the role of emotion in reasoning through moral problems?
Shows that emotional reactions are a quick guide tomaking a decision that is almost always right
What happened to Phineas Gage? What did this tell us about the emotions?
An iron bar shot through Phineas Gage's head, causing damage to part of his PREFRONTAL CORTEX. The damage impaired Gage's judgment and decision-making ability.
He then showed LITTLE EMOTION AND MADE POOR DECISIONS.
Shows that you without emotions, you cannot make good moral decisions
What do psychologists use as a good operational definition of anxiety?
an increase in the STARTLE REFLEX
Damage to the prefrontal cortex
People with damage to the prefrontal cortex cannot imagine feeling good or bad after various outcomes; therefore, they see little reason to prefer one outcome to another.
What brain structure seems to be highly implicated in the experience of anxiety?
The Amygdala is highly implicated in the experience of anxiety
What happens when this brain structure is over-reactive?
Makes people more likely than others to report many emotionally unpleasant experiences
For soldiers more likely to report severe combat stress
What happens when it is damaged?
People with brain damage that impairs their emotions have trouble making good decisions.
What does the polygraph do?
"lie-detector test," device that records sympathetic nervous system arousal, as measured by blood pressure, heart rate, breathing rate, and electrical conduction of the skin
Problems with Polygraph
the accuracy of the tests are too uncertain for important decisions
What is the Guilty-Knowledge Test? Why is it better?
A modified version of the polygraph test, produces more accurate results by asking questions that should be threatening to someone who knows the facts of a crime
It's better because it rarelyclassifies an innocent person as guilty
How do anger, disgust, and contempt differ?
Anger: something interferes with your rights or expectations
Disgust: a reaction to something that would make you feel contaminated if it got in your mouth
Contempt: a reaction to a violation of community standards
Does wealth increase happiness? If so, for whom andunder what circumstances?
Beyond a certain level of wealth, additional money doesn't add much happiness
On average, poor people are less happy
People evaluate their wealth compared to how well they would expect to be doing, based on those around them
It is hard to be poor and sick and happy
It is possible to be sick and happy or poor and happy
What is positive psychology?
Enrich life, such as happiness, hope, creativity, courage, spirituality, and responsibility
What correlates with greater happiness, well-being, and life satisfaction?
Smaller separation between the wealthy and everyone else in a country
Having close friendships and romantic attachments
Have goals in life other than the goal of making money
Having manyconversations that exchange important information
Having happy friends
What can you do to increase your happiness in your daily life?
Change up your activities
Ex: go for a nature walk, join a club, start better study habits
List things for which you feel grateful once a week
Help other people
Are elderly people moreor less happy in general than everyone else? Why?
Elderly people are generally more happy than everyone else
They don't have to worry about becoming a success, paying the bill, rearing a family
They already know how successful they are/aren't
What makes people sad?
A sense of loss
Usually with little hope of recovering what has been lost
What might be the social function of crying?
To elicit sympathy and social support
What are the "self-conscious" emotions?
Embarrassment, shame, guilt, and pride
Occur when you think about how other people regard you or might regard you if they knew what you had done
How did Selye definestress?
Stress is the nonspecific response of the body to any demand made upon it. All demands on the body evoke responses that prepare for fighting some kind of threat.
What are the direct and indirect effects of prolonged or severe stress?
Forgetting to take medications
Increase in alcohol intake
May increase the possibility of smoking,drinking excessively, using illegal drugs, overeating, and having unsafe sex
Adrenal glands release cortisol
Increases metabolism and increases the supply of sugar and other fuels to the cells
What helps prevent heart disease?
What is PTSD? How common is it in people who have experienced trauma?
Post-TraumaticStress Disorder: a condition marked by prolonged anxiety and depression
Most people that have experienced trauma do not develop PTSD
What are the three main types of ways of coping with stress?
Doing something to improve the situation
Reinterpreting: a situation to make it seem less threatening
Regulating one's emotionalreaction
What can a person do to prepare for a difficult experience to make it less stressful?
devote time to relaxation
What are other techniques that a person can employ to reduce anxiety and stress?
RED: RELAX, EXERCISE, DISTRACTION
What is reappraisal?
lookingon the brightside
ROD went through his head
Vince needed to complete a group project for his psychology class. His group members, though, never did their portion of the work leaving Vince to complete the entire project on his own. His group members,however, were happy to take credit for Vince's hard work when it came time to turn in the assignment. Vince is most likely to feel ________ toward his group members.
Contempt: reaction to a violation of community standards such as someone failing to do a share of the work or claiming credit for something another person did.
The pleasant feeling of depending on someone else is considered a basic emotionby
While going for a walk one day with his girlfriend, Dennis comes across large snake. Dennis immediately turns and runs away. His girlfriend laughs and says, "what's wrong with you?" Based on the fact that he ran from the snake, Dennis says "I'm afraid of snakes." Which of the following best explains this exchange?
The mean level of happiness of various countries correlates positively with all of the following except
good opportunities for women.
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What is Schachter and Singer's theory of emotion?
Schachter and Singer's (1962) Two-Factor Theory of Emotion suggests that physiological arousal determines the strength of the emotion, while cognitive appraisal identifies the emotion label. So, in this theory, the “two-factor” represents physiological change and cognitive appraisal change.
What did Schachter and Singer argue?
According to the Schachter and Singer theory, participants given epinephrine would be expected to have higher levels of positive affect, but this didn't happen—instead, participants in the placebo group reported higher levels of positive emotions.
What are the two factors in Schachter and Singer's two
The aim of the experiment was to test the two-factor theory of emotion. Schachter proposed that human emotions contain two factors or parts: physical arousal and a cognitive label. According to Schachter, both of these elements must be present for you to experience an emotion.
How does Schachter and Singer's theory of emotions differ from the James Lange view?
The James-Lange theory proposes the emotion is the result of arousal. Schachter and Singer's two-factor model proposes that arousal and cognition combine to create emotion.